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Chickenpox 水痘



What is Chicken Pox? 什么是水痘?


Chickenpox is a highly contagious illness caused by the varicella-zoster virus. Initial symptoms include slight fever, body weakness and tiredness. These are soon followed by itchy blister-like rashes. The rash may first show up on the chest, back, and face, and then spread over the entire body.


水痘是高传染力疾病,主要是由水痘带状疱疹病毒(简称水痘病毒)所引起的。初期症状包括轻微发烧和疲倦,之后皮肤会开始出现红疹。皮疹一般先在胸部、背部和脸部出现,然后会陆续在其他身体部位出现。


Once the chickenpox rash appears, it goes through three phases:

Papules - Raised pink or red bumps.

Vesicles - Small fluid-filled blisters

Scabs - Crusts and scabs


水痘的皮疹可分为三个阶段:

丘疹 - 粉红色或红色凸起皮疹

水泡 - 充满液体的小水泡

结痂 - 水泡破裂后结痂



How is chickenpox spread? 水痘如何传播?


Chickenpox is contagious from 1 - 2 days before the rash appears until all the rashes have crusted over and dried up.

水痘传染期一般从皮疹出现前1至2天开始直到皮疹完全结痂为止。

  • Directly touching the blisters, saliva or mucosal secretions of an infected person 直接接触水痘患者的水痘、飞沫或黏膜分泌物

  • Through droplets or air by coughing and sneezing 透过飞沫或空气传播,如咳嗽和打喷嚏

  • Indirectly by touching contaminated items freshly soiled, such as clothing from an infected person 间接接触被水痘病毒污染的物品,例如患者的衣服

  • Direct contact with the blisters of a person with shingles 直接接触带状疱疹患者的水泡


Chickenpox is highly contagious! 水痘传播力超强!


The virus can spread through sneezing and coughing. Chickenpox tends to be more severe in adults than children, and adults have a higher risk of developing complications. Most cases of chickenpox are mild and will resolve on their own.

只要随意的一个咳嗽或打喷嚏,病毒就可以传播。成人出水痘时的症状会比儿童严重,并更有可能出现并发症。大多数水痘属于轻症并会自行痊愈。


People who may be at high risk for complications include:

具有高风险水痘并发症的人群包括:

  1. Newborn babies 新生儿

  2. Adults 成人

  3. Persons with weakened immune system 免疫力较弱者

  4. Pregnant women 孕妇


Is there a vaccine for chickenpox? 水痘有疫苗可预防吗?


Chickenpox can be prevented by immunisation. In Malaysia, chickenpox vaccine has not been included in the National Immunisation Schedule. It does not belong to those types of vaccines that require mandatory injections. 2 doses of chickenpox vaccine are recommended for children, starting at the age of 12 months, adolescents, and adults who have never had chickenpox and were never vaccinated.


水痘疫苗可以预防水痘。在马来西亚,水痘疫苗并未被纳入“国家免疫接种时间表”里,它不属于强制性注射的疫苗。建议未感染过水痘或从未接种过水痘疫苗的12个月以上儿童、青少年和成年人接种两剂水痘疫苗。



Getting chickenpox once provides immunity for life? 得过一次水痘就终身免疫?


Most people will only have chickenpox for once. There are rare cases in which a person can develop chickenpox twice. The virus remains inactive in nerve tissue and may reactivate later in life causing shingles.


大多数出过水痘的人不会再出水痘,但也有极少数的人一生会出多过一次水痘。水痘带状疱疹病毒会留在您的神经细胞中。多年后,病毒可以以带状疱疹的形式重新激活并重现,俗称“生蛇”。


DOs and DON’Ts in Managing Chickenpox 感染水痘时的注意事项

  • Remain home until all blisters have crusted (about seven days) 隔离在家直到水泡结痂时为止(大约7天)

  • Drink plenty of fluids 多喝水

  • Maintain good hygiene 保持良好的卫生

  • Take medicine following doctor's advice 根据医生的指示服用药物

  • Do not scratch blisters or scabs 不要弄破水泡,让其自然结痂脱落

  • Keep the room well-ventilated 保持房间空气流通


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