What is Chicken Pox? 什么是水痘？
Chickenpox is a highly contagious illness caused by the varicella-zoster virus. Initial symptoms include slight fever, body weakness and tiredness. These are soon followed by itchy blister-like rashes. The rash may first show up on the chest, back, and face, and then spread over the entire body.
Once the chickenpox rash appears, it goes through three phases:
Papules - Raised pink or red bumps.
Vesicles - Small fluid-filled blisters
Scabs - Crusts and scabs
丘疹 - 粉红色或红色凸起皮疹
水泡 - 充满液体的小水泡
结痂 - 水泡破裂后结痂
How is chickenpox spread? 水痘如何传播？
Chickenpox is contagious from 1 - 2 days before the rash appears until all the rashes have crusted over and dried up.
Directly touching the blisters, saliva or mucosal secretions of an infected person 直接接触水痘患者的水痘、飞沫或黏膜分泌物
Through droplets or air by coughing and sneezing 透过飞沫或空气传播，如咳嗽和打喷嚏
Indirectly by touching contaminated items freshly soiled, such as clothing from an infected person 间接接触被水痘病毒污染的物品，例如患者的衣服
Direct contact with the blisters of a person with shingles 直接接触带状疱疹患者的水泡
Chickenpox is highly contagious! 水痘传播力超强！
The virus can spread through sneezing and coughing. Chickenpox tends to be more severe in adults than children, and adults have a higher risk of developing complications. Most cases of chickenpox are mild and will resolve on their own.
People who may be at high risk for complications include:
Newborn babies 新生儿
Persons with weakened immune system 免疫力较弱者
Pregnant women 孕妇
Is there a vaccine for chickenpox? 水痘有疫苗可预防吗？
Chickenpox can be prevented by immunisation. In Malaysia, chickenpox vaccine has not been included in the National Immunisation Schedule. It does not belong to those types of vaccines that require mandatory injections. 2 doses of chickenpox vaccine are recommended for children, starting at the age of 12 months, adolescents, and adults who have never had chickenpox and were never vaccinated.
Getting chickenpox once provides immunity for life? 得过一次水痘就终身免疫？
Most people will only have chickenpox for once. There are rare cases in which a person can develop chickenpox twice. The virus remains inactive in nerve tissue and may reactivate later in life causing shingles.
DOs and DON’Ts in Managing Chickenpox 感染水痘时的注意事项
Remain home until all blisters have crusted (about seven days) 隔离在家直到水泡结痂时为止（大约7天）
Drink plenty of fluids 多喝水
Maintain good hygiene 保持良好的卫生
Take medicine following doctor's advice 根据医生的指示服用药物
Do not scratch blisters or scabs 不要弄破水泡，让其自然结痂脱落
Keep the room well-ventilated 保持房间空气流通